Presentation to NEPOOL on Public Policies for Renewable Resources and Carbon Emissions Reduction

New England State Public Policies for Renewable Resources and Carbon Emissions Reduction

NEPOOL Participants Committee Summer Meeting
June 22, 2016


  • This presentation is not an exhaustive list of every requirement of every states’ energy and environmental laws
  • This presentation provides high-level, generally indicative information about current energy and environmental laws that influence the regional power system


  • Public Policies
    • Energy Efficiency
    • Renewable Resources
    • Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction
  • Programs and Mechanisms to Support Public Policies
    • System Benefits Charge
    • Renewable Portfolio Standard
    • Net Metering
    • Long-Term Contracting
    • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)
    • Other Initiatives

Energy Efficiency – the “first” fuel

Installed measures (e.g., products, equipment, systems, services, practices and/or strategies) on end-use customer facilities that reduce the total amount of electrical energy needed, while delivering a comparable or improved level of end-use service. Such measures include, but are not limited to, the installation of more energy efficient lighting, motors, refrigeration, HVAC equipment and control systems, envelope measures, operations and maintenance procedures, and industrial process equipment. – ISO-NE Tariff §I.2.2.  

[see pdf for graphic]

Renewable Resources

Common TechnologiesStateSpecial Technologies or Restrictions

•Solar Photovoltaic (PV)

•Small Hydro

•Landfill Gas

•Biomass (MA: subject to eligibility requirements)

•Anaerobic Digestion


•Solar Thermal

•Ocean Thermal



MaineMunicipal Solid Waste (“MSW”) with recycling, cogeneration, “useful thermal energy”
MassachusettsFuel cells with Renewable fuels, MSW
ConnecticutHydro <5 MW, sustainable biomass, MSW, fuel cells, energy efficiency and combined heat and power (“CHP”), large-scale hydro (only if shortfall in Class I resources, capped at 5% in 2020)
Rhode IslandFuel cells only with renewable fuels
VermontLarge Hydro
New HampshireGeothermal, no fuel cells

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction

[see pdf for graphic]

Carbon Dioxide Emissions Reduction

Power SectorEconomy-WideLegal Authorities
ConnecticutRegional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI):

2.5% per year
until 2020

10% below 1990 levels by 2020
80% below 2001 levels by 2050
Conn. Gen. Stat. §§ 22a-200a and 22a-200c
Maine10% below 1990 levels by 202038 Me. Rev. Stat. ch. 3-A and 3-B
Massachusetts25% below 1990 levels by 2020

80% below 1990 levels by 2050

Mass. Gen. Laws ch. 21A § 22 and ch. 21N § 3
New Hampshiren/aN.H. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 125:O
Rhode Island10% below 1990 levels by 2020

45% below 1990 levels by 2035

80% below 1990 levels by 2050

R.I. Gen. Laws §§ 42-6.2-2,
42-17.12(19), 23-23, and 23-82
Vermont40% below 1990 levels by 2030

80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050

30 V.S.A. § 255

2016 Comprehensive Energy Plan

Programs and Mechanisms to Support Public Policies

System Benefit Charge

[see pdf for graphic]

Renewable Portfolio Standard

Class I14.0%15.5%17.0%19.5%20.0%20.0%20.0%20.0%20.0%20.0%
Class II3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%3.0%
Class III4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%4.0%
Class I9.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%10.0%
Class II30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%30.0%
Class I11.0%12.0%13.0%14.0%15.0%16.0%17.0%18.0%19.0%20.0%
Class IIa2.5%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%2.6%
Class IIb3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%3.5%
New Hampshire
Class I6.9%7.8%8.7%9.6%10.5%11.4%12.3%13.2%14.1%15.0%
Class II0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%0.3%
Class III0.5%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%8.0%
Class IV1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%
Rhode Island
Distributed Gen.n/a1.0%1.6%2.2%2.8%3.4%4.0%4.6%5.2%5.8%

Renewable Portfolio Standard

[see pdf for graphic]

Net Metering

[see pdf for graphic]

Long-Term Contracts

  • Clean Energy Request for Proposals (RFP)
    • Entities from three of the New England States – Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island – have jointly issued a Request for Proposals (RFP) from private developers of clean energy and transmission. The three States are leveraging their collective authority in a joint procurement to open the possibility of procuring large-scale projects that no one state could procure alone.
      • Connecticut
        • 2,750 GWh per year of Qualified Clean Energy under Section 1(c) of Public Act 15-107
        • 1,375 GWh per year of Qualified Clean Energy under Section 7 of Public Act 13-303; and
        • 125 GWh of Class I Qualified Clean Energy Under Section 6 of Public Act 13-303
      • Massachusetts
        • 817 GWh per year of Class I Qualified Clean Energy under Section 83(a) of the Green Communities Act, as amended
        • Additional Qualified Clean Energy of an undefined amount, so long as bids for such are in the form of the Delivery Commitment Model, for contributing to achievement of the goals of the Massachusetts 2008 Global Warming Solutions Act (GWSA)
      • Rhode Island
        • Qualified Clean Energy of an undefined amount, sought by Narragansett only in the form of the Delivery Commitment Model, for contributing to the goals of Chapter 31 of Title 39 of the General Laws of Rhode Island, the Affordable Clean Energy Security Act (“Chapter 39-31”)

**Note: Several states have already procured clean energy resources via long term contract
under these and other existing state energy procurement authorities**

Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)

[see pdf for graphic]

Other Initiatives

  • Green Banks
    • Connecticut Green Bank
    • Rhode Island Infrastructure Bank
    • Vermont Economic Development Authority
  • Grid Modernization
  • Storage
    • Massachusetts Energy Storage Initiative
  • Electric Vehicles
    • New England Governors – Eastern Canadian Premiers’ 2014 Resolution:
      five percent (5%) fleet market share penetration of alternative fuel vehicles by 2020
    • Four New England States joined the 2013 State Zero-Emissions Vehicle Program Memorandum of Understanding:
      • Massachusetts: 300,000 by 2025
      • Rhode Island: 43,000 by 2025
      • Vermont: 18,000 by 2025